A monolithic house is a structure erected in a way in which the entire building frame, external walls and main floors are cast from concrete, forming a single structure without seams and joints.
This is how not only apartment buildings are built, but also private cottages and other objects. It is believed that monolithic houses are the most durable and can stand for 100–150 years. This design does not allow moisture and wind to pass through, and is resistant to earthquakes.
Types of monolithic houses
The main walls are made entirely of concrete, but the internal floors and main elements can be made of different materials. There are two main types here:
- monolithic-frame buildings. When they are created at the base of the frame, concrete columns are installed on the foundation, which form the backbone of the entire structure. Between these pillars, walls are already being built, also filled with concrete. Internal floors can be made of foamed concrete or wall panels;
- monolithic-brick buildings. Brickwork is used to build the walls of rooms and other rooms inside the building. Often use hollow brick. It can also be used to decorate the house outside;
- sometimes you can also find a house with a monolithic structure, when absolutely all walls and partitions are made of poured concrete.
Technologies for the construction of monolithic houses
The construction of a monolithic house is different in that almost all work is carried out on site. Unlike panel or other types of houses, for this type all materials are brought to the construction site. First, the foundation is poured, which is most often a meter-long concrete slab, if necessary, reinforced with driven piles. The foundation is reinforced with reinforcement, which becomes the belt of the frame.
Then the construction of cast concrete walls begins. Directly on the spot, structures are assembled that will stop with a form for pouring concrete. Formwork, as these systems are called, can be made of different materials – wood, steel or aluminum. The most commonly used material is polystyrene.
The formwork can be removed when it is detached from an already dried and finished wall and moved to a higher level. This is the most economical option. The fixed structure remains in the wall, serving as an additional strength of the walls and heat and sound insulation. This is most often done in the construction of private low-rise buildings.
Due to the fact that the formworks are prefabricated elements, there are no restrictions in the architecture of a monolithic building. It can be round or semicircular, have the shape of a polyhedron. This allows you to embody any individual design of the building, which is especially appreciated in the construction of private cottages.
There are formworks that are manufactured industrially – tunnel ones, they are brought to the site ready-made and it is impossible to change such structures. But they are created according to an individual project, so there are no restrictions on the shape of the building.